How to make a homemade hydroelectric generator

Today we will learn about the project of building a homemade hydroelectric generator. Hydroelectricity is one of the main renewable energy sources in the world, accounting for one fifth of the world’s electricity.

There are two methods of making a homemade electric generator, either by using a dynamo or by building our own generator.

A generator consists of two parts:

  • The stator, the part which does not move and which is equipped with coils to collect electricity.
  • The rotor, the part that moves and has the magnets that induce electricity in the coils.

How to make a hydroelectric generator.

The first thing we will do is print the discs you can find here.

We will glue this plane on a piece of corrugated cardboard, trying not to form lumps when gluing. Using a cutter, we cut the rotor and the stator.

We are going to make a small hole in the center of the rotor using a nail, larger in the center of the stator (more precisely the size of the drawn circle).

Fold a 3 x 16 cm piece of cardboard in half and wrap electrical tape around it to keep it that way. This cardboard will be our guide to making the coils.

Prepare 8 strips of insulating tape of 4 cm before the next step. Wrap the enameled copper wire through the guide to form the first spool so that it has about 200 turns, but not before letting about 10cm unwound to be the connectors.

Carefully remove the guide from the spool and use the pieces of electrical tape to maintain the shape of the spool. Scrape the enamel off the ends of each wire with sandpaper (about 1 cm from each end). Make sure this part of the wire is completely free of enamel. Repeat the above steps to make three more coils.

Coil construction.

Place the coils on the stator disc respecting the direction indicated by the template (two coils wound in the direction of clockwise and two in the opposite direction of clockwise). Join the wires so that the current can follow the path indicated by the arrows, starting with the coil counterclockwise on the lower left side. The cables should be joined by winding the unglazed sides of each coil. Apply electrical tape to cover the connections.

Check that your connections are correct by measuring the resistance of the circuit with a multimeter. If the connections are correct, the resistance should be low (<10 ohms).

Once the correct operation is confirmed, glue the coils to the stator using silicone. Wait for the silicone to dry before placing the next spool.

Get 4 rare earth or ceramic type magnets about 18mm in diameter. Using a magnetic compass, determine the polarity of each side of the magnet and mark the north pole of two magnets and the south pole of the other two.

Glue the magnets with silicone so that the polarity alternates (NSNS). Position and polarity are described on the rotor table.

We will make the handle with a 20 cm x 1/4 ″ wooden dowel. We will sharpen the dowel with a blade.

Construction of turbines.

To build the turbine, you need to drill the center of a 3 to 5 cm plug with a 1/4 ″ drill. Place the cap on the template and with a pencil mark the places where the spoons will be placed.

Using a utility knife, pierce the marked points. Cut the mango out of 8 plastic spoons, leaving one centimeter of mango. Insert the spoons into the stopper and adjust the angle and depth of each spoon so that they are spaced and have the same tilt angle to the stopper. Glue the spoons on the stopper with silicone.

Get a 4 liter pitcher of rectangular shape, cut the lower part with scissors or a razor as seen in the photo.

Using a ruler, find the center of one of the side sides. Mark this point with an indelible marker. Repeat the work on the opposite side. Drill both sides with a 1/4 ” drill at the mark you made.

Using pins, secure the stator to one side of the container so that the center of the stator coincides with the center of the container.

Using scissors, cut 2 pieces of 1 cm each from 1/4 inch PVC pipe. Pass the tube through the center of the plastic container and the stator and shaft as shown in the figure.

Insert the peg through the impeller and the container as shown in the figure above. Position the turbine inside the container so that the spoons are under the bottleneck. Also adjust the position of the vinyl tube so that it does not touch the inside of the container. Now place the second tube after the stator. The tubes will help keep all parts of the turbine in position as it spins. Turn the impeller to check that the impeller does not hit the inside of the container.

Insert the rotor onto the shaft. The magnets should be about 2-3mm from the coils. Spin the shaft to check that the magnets are not touching the coils. Adjust the angle of the disc if necessary.

If the rotor spins smoothly, secure the position of the rotor by placing hot silicone on the dowel.

Place the container near a spout and spin the turbine with water. Measure the energy you produce with a multimeter.

Note: If you have decided to use the dynamo, replace the rotor and stator with it.

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